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Police Foundations

This guide is designed to give you access to various types of information in the criminal justice field.

Rule of Law

“The rule of law is a principle whereby the government and its officials along with all citizens, groups, businesses, and institutions, are subject to rules and regulations that are fair, just, and enforced uniformly.  Laws must also be public and widely known. The rule of law is designed to ensure that everyone is treated equally regardless of their social or economic status, or their race, ethnicity, religion, gender, or sexual orientation. Democracies must embrace the rule of law to ensure justice and equality for their citizens” (Lansford, 2017, pg. 37-38).

Lansford, T. (2017). Justice, policing, and the rule of law. Broomall, PA: National Highlights Inc.

The role of judges is to protect the rights and freedoms guaranteed under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Charter).

15. (1) Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to the equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in particular, without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability.

— Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms


Rule of Law Books

Adversarial System of Justice

Adversarial Justice System

"The Canadian criminal Justice system is an adversarial system where two opposing sides present their case before an impartial arbiter. The Crown attorney, representing the government of Canada, and the accused, usually represented by defence counsel, are adversaries during this process" (Antonacci, 2013, p.15).

Antonacci, G. CJ. (2013). Whitby, ON: McGraw-Hill Ryerson

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“adversarial justice system”

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(adversarial OR adversary) "trial system" canadian

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"criminal justice"

Due Process

"The due process model is to ensure that the criminal justice system is just. There is a focus on ensuring that accused people are treated fairly and that there are procedural safeguards in place to protect the rights of individuals. The model stresses the importance of the presumption of innocence and all of the safeguardss that support that assumption" (Antonacci, 2013, p.10).

Antonacci, G. CJ. (2013). Whitby, ON: McGraw-Hill Ryerson

Due Process