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Infection Prevention and Control


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Arvind Kang

PICO(T) for Quantitative Research

P = Patient/Population/Problem

I = Intervention

C = Comparison (optional)

O = Outcome

T = Time or Type of study (optional)

Example Questions

In adult patients with total hip replacements (Population), how effective is pain medication (Intervention) compared to aerobic stretching (Comparison) in controlling post operative pain (Outcome) during the perioperative and recovery time (Time)?​

How did Bill 124 (Intervention) affect the recruitment and retention (Outcome) of nurses in Ontario (Population) during the COVID pandemic (Time)?​

PEO for Qualitative Research

P = Patient/ Population/ Problem

E = Exposure

O = Outcome

Example Questions

How does aerobic stretching (Exposure) impact the quality of life (Outcome) of older adults after total hip replacement (Population)?​

How has Bill 124 (Exposure) affected the morale (Outcome) of nursing staff in Ontario (Population)?​

How to use PICO or PICO(T)